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How to use var, let, and const in JavaScript

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JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that is commonly used in web development. It was first created in 1995 by Brendan Eich, a developer at Netscape Communications Corporation.

JavaScript allows developers to create dynamic and interactive web pages by providing a way to add interactivity and behavior to HTML and CSS. It is also used for server-side programming and building desktop and mobile applications.

Variables in JavaScript

In JavaScript, a variable is a container that stores a value, which can be used throughout your code. Variables allow you to assign a name to a value, making it easier to refer to and manipulate in your code.

Image source : codeburst

To declare a variable in JavaScript, you can use the var, let, or const keywords. Var is the original way to declare a variable, while let and const were introduced in the ECMAScript 6 specification.


The var keyword was traditionally used to declare variables in JavaScript before the introduction of let and const in ES6. Variables declared with var are function-scoped, meaning they are only accessible within the function in which they are declared.

Here is an example of declaring a variable with var:

function myFunction() {
  var x = 10;

Variables in JavaScript can hold any data type, including strings, numbers, booleans, objects, and more. You can also declare multiple variables at once using a comma-separated list:

var firstName = "John", lastName = "Doe", age = 30;


The let keyword was introduced in ES6 and is used to declare block-scoped variables, which are only accessible within the block of code in which they are defined. This is different from var, which is function-scoped. Here is an example of declaring a variable with let:

function myFunction() {
  let x = 10;
  if (true) {
    let x = 20;
    console.log(x); // output: 20
  console.log(x); // output: 10

In the example above, we declared a variable x using let inside the function myFunction. We then created a new block of code using an if statement, where we declared another variable x using let. Since this new variable x is only accessible within the block of code created by the if statement, it does not affect the value of the variable x declared earlier in the function.


The const keyword was also introduced in ES6 and is used to declare constants, which are read-only and cannot be reassigned. Like let, const is also block-scoped. Here is an example of declaring a constant:

function myFunction() {
  const x = 10;
  // This will throw an error: TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.
  x = 20;

In the example above, we declared a constant variable x with the value 10. We then tried to reassign the value of x to 20, which resulted in a TypeError since x is a constant and cannot be reassigned.

It is important to choose the appropriate keyword when declaring variables in JavaScript, depending on the scope and mutability you need for the variable.

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When I'm not reading about tech, I'm writing about it, or thinking about the next weird food combinations to try. I do all these with my headphones plugged in, and a sticky note on my computer with the words: "The galaxy needs saving, Star Lord."
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